The definition of hate speech for the survey was:
any technology-mediated speech or digital communication that offends, discriminates, denigrates, abuses and/or disparages a person(s) on the basis of a group-defining characteristic such as race, ethnicity, gender, nationality, sexual orientation, religion, age, disability, and other
So it is not abuse generally, but abuse based on a group characteristic.
The prevalence of online hate speech was not huge. Only 11% said they had experienced hate speech online in the last year. The breakdown by demographic was:
- Gender: 13% of men and 8% of women so men face more hate speech than women
- Ethnicity: Pakeha/European 9%, Maori 13%, Pasifika 13%, Asian 16% so Asians face the most hate speech online