Labour came far too close to doing something that has never ever happened before in recent New Zealand electoral history – having an Opposition lose a seat in a by-election. No Government has won a seat off the opposition in the 59 by-elections since 1936.
And even worse it was not a marginal seat – it was a safe seat that has been held by Labour since 1938 (in that its predecessor seats were also Labour).
I was hoping the majority would be below 3,000 – my pick had been 2,500. I never thought it would almost drop to a triple figures and get as low as 1,080. In some ways it was the ideal result. If the margin had been 500 or so, then you’d be kicking yourself for not doing that extra bit to win it. And if Labour had actually managed to lose the seat, then Goff would be goneburger, and National doesn’t actually want Goff rolled.
So what happened? Well as I blogged during the week, I didn’t expect there to be a uniform swing – I expected different swings in different areas. I’ve divided the seat up into four areas – Porirua East, Porirua West, Northern Suburbs and Kapiti.
In 2008 Laban got 82% and Parata 9%. There was basically no swing here at all with 2010 as Faafoi got 82% and Parata 11%. The total vote was 72% of 2008, and McCarten got 4% here.
This shows how hard it is to win Mana, when one large portion of the electorate votes Labour 9:1 over National. Even if the rest of the electorate votes 3:2 National over Labour, it is hard to compensate for such areas.
In 2008 Laban got 59% and Parata 28% so still very much core Labour areas. There was a good swing here as in 2010 Faafoi got 51% and Parata 35%, so the margin dropped from 31% to 16%. The total vote was 66% of 2008, and McCarten got 6% here.
I had been expected Porirua West to be like Porirua East, and not swing much. But in some booths in Titahi Bay Hekia lifted her vote share by 9% and Faafoi lost 15%.
These areas are pretty solid Nat, In 2008 Laban got 35% and Parata 54%. That was good enough, but there was a massive swing here as in 2010 Faafoi got 25% and Parata 67%, so the margin grew from 19% to 42%. The total vote was 74% of 2008, and McCarten got 2% here.
The Kapiti area voted Labour last time, and flipped to National this time. And what is more extraordinary about this is it happened despite noisy local opposition to a new expressway.
In 2008 Laban got 46% and Parata 41%. There was a big swing here as in 2010 Faafoi got 37% and Parata 47%, so the margin went from +5% to Labour to +10% for National – a 15% net movement. The total vote was 69% of 2008, and McCarten got 3% here.
In 17/42 polling places the vote share for Labour dropped by 10% or greater. That is huge.
Interestingly the advance votes actually had Faafoi getting a bigger vote share than Laban did in 2008. This reflects my view that Hekia got real momentum in the final week as several community leaders endorsed her, but by then many advance votes had already been cast.
CR v CL
Matt McCarten didn’t achieve a great result (but he did get lots of signatures for his petitions) and the Greens had a solid third. ACT was battling it out with Legalise Cannabis for 5th place. What was the total CR and CL vote in 2008 and 2010?
In 2008 Labour & Greens got 60% of the electorate vote, and National/ACT got 37%. In 2010 Labour/Greens/McCarten got 57% and National/ACT got 42%. So even taking the minor parties into account, you had the centre-right close the gap by 8% in Mana!
Labour did manage to retain the seat, but they had a massive swing against their candidate. Again, this is historically very rare in by-elections. I’ve gone through the last few by-elections to note what happened:
- 2010 Mt Albert – remained safe for Opposition
- 2004 Te Tai Hauauru – not contested by major parties
- 1998 TKC – big swing against Government
- 1994 Selwyn – big swing against Government
- 1993 Tauranga – not contested by major parties
- 1992 Wellington Central – was marginal Labour and majority increases slightly for Opposition
- 1992 Tamaki – big swing against Government
- 1985 Timaru – falls to Opposition
- 1980 East Coast Bays – falls to Opposition (Social Credit)
- 1980 Onehunga – Opposition holds comfortably
- 1980 Northern Maori – stays with Labour
- 1979 Christchurch Central – Government comes 3rd
- 1978 Rangitikei – Government loses to Opposition (Social Credit)
- 1976 Nelson – Opposition increases majority
- 1977 Mangere – Opposition holds comfortably
- 1977 Pahiatua – Government holds
So this has not happened in the last 35 years – an Opposition almost losing a safe seat in a by-election.
The closest we have is 1992 Wellington Central, and they have a number of things in common
- Both held in the first term of a new National Government
- Both held two years into that term
- Both had popular retiring MPs (Wilde and Laban)
- Both had Labour put up a candidate with no background in the party (Laidlaw and Faafoi)
- Both had a high profile third party candidate on the left (Denis Welch and McCarten)
- Both times the National candidate was married to Wira Gardiner (Pauline Gardiner and Hekia Parata)
- Both times the National candidate had stood in the previous general election
- Both times Labour got a narrow victory on the by-election
The really interesting thing is that in the 1993 general election, Laidlaw lost the seat to Gardiner – it was the only seat lost by the Opposition in that election.
Kris has won the seat, but it is now a marginal seat, and he is going to have to work very very hard in the community to match Hekia and retain the seat in 2011.
A reader sent me this graph, of the ten largest polling places in Mana. It tells a big story about how Cannons Creek saved Labour.